MASB White Papers

With the exception of our newest release, MASB white papers may be downloaded for free with registration.

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The Financial Value of Brands Imperative: Why Brands Must Be Valued in Financial Terms • Meier, Pace, Rao, Findley • June 2021

Despite the obvious connection between marketing activities and the meeting of long-term monetary goals, the Financial Value of Brands is not systemically monitored or analyzed in most organizations. To fill this gap, brand-centric enterprises should develop an internal methodology to annually measure, explain, and report the Financial Value of Brands to the executive level, even in the absence of any external regulatory or accounting requirements. Regular measurement and analysis of FVB advantages the practice of marketing by demonstrating the material contribution of brands to the overall value of the enterprise. The FVB process is not merely an accounting or academic exercise. It can and must be used as a management decision-making tool with the end goal of enhancing enterprise value. Includes summaries of valuation services provided by several leading measurement providers. 

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction
  2. The Brand Investment & Valuation Initiative
  3. The Sustainable Financial Advantage of Strong Brands
  4. Financial Outcome Research and Case Studies
  5. Direct Evidence of the Role of FVB on Stock Performance
  6. The Evolving Thinking on Marketing’s Financial Value Drivers
  7. The Fifth Driver – Optionality
  8. The Brand Value Accounting Dilemma
  9. Frequently Encountered Obstacles
  10. Emerging Best Practices
  11. The Path Forward
  12. FVB Pilot Program Participation
    Appendix A: Some Notes on the Measurement of Brand ‘Equity’ and Brand ‘Value’
    Appendix B: Financial Value of Brands Measurement Provider Summaries
    Appendix C: Select Terms from the Common Language Marketing Dictionary
    Appendix D: Financial Value of Brands Process infographic

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Effectiveness and Efficiency of TV’s Brand-Building Power: A Historical Review •  Findley/Johnson/Crang/Stewart  December 2020

ARF Great Mind Award 2021– Best Practitioner Paper 

Radical changes continue to shape the media landscape. Although much recent research has been conducted on the effectiveness of new media platforms, less attention has been given to that media-plan staple—television advertising. A common question in media planning revolves around whether television is as effective in 2017 as it was in the 1980s or whether its role has diminished to the point of being nonviable. Even if television remains an effective advertising medium, there are questions about how television compares with the many other media-platform alternatives available today. This article answers those questions.


Proving the Value of the Brand • Pace, Diorio • July 2019

The value of a brand, creating it, maintaining it or, even better, growing it, is of significant importance to any enterprise that currently has brands. Brands influence customer choice, and the power of a brand’s attraction influences sales today and tomorrow. And yet the measurement of brands and their value remains a complex topic to explore, with many divergent points of view. The totality of a brand’s value often only comes into focus when an acquisition occurs and the acquiring entity must establish a value to put on its balance sheet to account for the brand or brands it acquired. So, if book value for brands generally understates their value and other proprietary methodologies contain assumptions that can be debated, is work to value a brand still inherently worthwhile?


Applying the Brand Investment & Valuation Model Meier, Stewart, Findley • May 2018

Two key aspects differentiate the MASB BIV Model from other brand valuation models. First, it incorporates a behavioral measure of brand strength in the hearts and minds of customers, brand preference. Second, it establishes mathematical linkages from customer brand strength to brand monetary value. This empirically proven framework provides Finance and Marketing teams a practical approach for monitoring the value of their commercial brands. Its positive reception has fueled demand for information on how to deploy it.
This updated version of the original May 2017 release includes new material addressing environmental factors such as changes in tax and interest rates and their corresponding effect on brand value.


Television’s Brand-Building Power – from GRPs to PRPs Findley, Johnson, Crang • Oct 2017

Radical changes continue to shape the media landscape. While much research has been conducted on the effectiveness of new platforms, less attention has been given to that media plan staple – television advertising. Is TV as effective as it was in the 1980s? Or has its role diminished to the point of non-viability? If still effective, how does it compare to other media platform options available today?

Perspective on Ad Capitalization and Taxation Moore, Stewart • 2016

Expenditures that have a life of less than a year are treated as current expenses while expenditures that have a life of greater than a year are capitalized and amortized over the useful life. Advertising expenditures are treated as short-term and expensed in the current year. Several proposals have been made to change the treatment of advertising to treat all advertising as having some long-term effect on sales. This paper examines research in economics, marketing and accounting that has addressed the short- and long-term effects of advertising on sales.

Brand Investment and Valuation:  A New, Empirically-based Approach Findley • 2016

The “brand” is one of the largest assets that a company owns. But unlike tangible assets like factories which are quantified on the balance sheet, a brand’s financial value often goes unrecognized. This puts marketing and finance teams at a disadvantage for assessing investments in the brand such as media. To bridge this gap MASB sponsored an ambitious project that brought together leading academics, marketing and finance practitioners from six blue-chip corporations, and specialists from several research companies.

What Is Known About the Long-Term Impact of Advertising Hanssens • 2011

The focus of most measures of marketing’s impact on sales is “short term.” Measurement and analyses that consider only short-term impact may put advertising at an unrealistic disadvantage when allocating marketing resources to maximize long-run profitability. This paper reviews what is known about the short- and long-term impact, illustrates the findings with practitioner examples, and provides clear direction for business application and improving financial return. (Ch. 8, Accountable Marketing: Linking Marketing Actions to Financial Performance)

Getting a Seat at the Table: C-Level Views on Marketing ROIPlummer, Blair • 2009

In the absence of standardized metrics for determining marketing’s contribution to return on investment and bottom line, the key to accountability may be found in the behaviors of other business functions—primarily finance and operations—which have established independent, self-governing standards bodies.